The use of telemedicine in Japan increased during the coronavirus disease pandemic, but is still limited. This study aimed to investigate the perceptions of psychiatrists regarding the use of telemedicine in psychiatry and provide insights into future measures to facilitate its widespread use in Japan. This is the first study of psychiatrists’ perceptions of telemedicine in Japan that incorporates quantitative assessments. A web-based questionnaire consisting of 18 Likert scale questions and 6 open-ended questions was conducted in August 2022. Of the 67 psychiatrists who participated in a randomized control trial, initiated in Japan in April 2021 to compare the effectiveness of telemedicine with that of face-to-face treatment, 30 who were in a position to provide regular telemedicine by August 2022 were surveyed. The questionnaire was completed by all 30 psychiatrists surveyed. Ninety percent of the respondents said that telemedicine was a good use of patients’ time, and 93.4% said that it was a cost-effective way for patients to receive care. Of the respondents, 56.6% indicated that telemedicine could be used to address psychiatric problems that could not be resolved through outpatient visits, and 93.4% indicated that the use of telemedicine in clinical research is useful. In response to an open-ended question regarding obstacles to the widespread use of telemedicine, 63.3% of respondents answered that the medical fee determined by the government was inappropriate, and this was the most common response. These results highlight the utility of the use of telemedicine in psychiatry and clinical research. Therefore, more appropriate measures to promote the use of telemedicine are desired in the future.