In the COVID-19 context, traits associated with antisociality can decrease concern and awareness about the potential harmfulness of the virus. This study investigated associations of pathological traits of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with behaviours and beliefs linked to COVID-19 containment measures. The sample consisted of 2230 Brazilian adults who answered ASPD-related facets of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 and a questionnaire regarding adherence to COVID-19 containment measures. We applied the DSM-5 ASPD criteria to divide the sample into antisocial and non-antisocial groups. Our findings suggest that individuals meeting the criteria for ASPD tend to exhibit reduced compliance with pandemic control measures and lower adherence to hygiene practices. Moreover, sex, income, and age should be considered potential covariates in research investigating the relationship between antisocial traits and adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. Altogether, our findings highlight ASPD traits’ role in the predisposition to lack of prosocial behaviours of adherence to COVID-19 containment measures.