Since the research on contemporary personality models—and psychopathology—mainly originate from the Western world, we aimed to test the factorial structure of two trait systems assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) in a non-Western sample and to compare the extracted models’ relative associations with binge eating disorder (BED) and bipolar spectrum disorder (BSD) symptoms. A community sample (N = 516; 72% female) was administered the PID-5, which can operationalize both the DSM-5 and ICD-11 systems. The factor structures of both systems were tested using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). The congruence coefficients of all factor loadings with international studies were calculated. The Binge Eating Scale (BES), Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS), and Hypomania Checklist-32-Revised (HCL-32) were used to measure the criterion variables. Linear regression models were used for comparing the DSM-5 and ICD-11 systems in predicting the BED and BSD. The findings supported five-factor solutions for both trait systems. Both systems significantly predicted dimensional measures of both BED and BSD (all p < 0.001). The present findings support an acceptable five-factor structure for both personality systems in the non-Western sample. Different algorithms of maladaptive domains on both systems are related to binge eating and bipolar spectrum psychopathology.