Research has demonstrated that latency is a reasonable index of response strength in the functional analysis and treatment of behaviors targeted for reduction. The literature contains numerous examples of functional analyses emphasizing latency informing effective treatment for problem behavior in various scenarios. Latency measurement can improve the versatility of functional analyses by allowing researchers and practitioners to examine behaviors that are not amenable to a traditional functional analysis arrangement and conduct assessments in challenging environments. Although there have been several reviews of the functional analysis literature, to date none have specifically addressed functional analyses emphasizing latency measurement. Given the unique advantages of latency-based functional analyses, a systematic review could be beneficial to researchers and practitioners in behavior analysis. Therefore, we conducted a systematic literature review of research on functional analyses using latency to measure target behaviors. Our review included 79 cases across 27 empirical research articles. We present a summary of the extant literature, highlight strengths and limitations of the empirical foundations, provide clinical implications, and discuss future directions for research.