In the current study, we used a sequential explanatory design to examine secondary writing instruction for deaf students in various school settings. An examination of secondary writing instruction was carried out in two cycles using a survey and subsequent focus group discussions. The first cycle (n = 222) presented an overview of secondary writing instruction for deaf students with diverse skill levels. The second cycle (n = 18) focused on writing instruction specific to grade-level or college-bound deaf students. We compared results from both cycles to investigate the similarities and differences in instructional practices and research needs between the two groups. We found that teachers are generally more prepared to instruct deaf students who are at grade level due to widely available curricula aligned with grade-level benchmarks. This contrasts with the challenges teachers face with creating or adapting materials for those who have experienced language deprivation. According to teachers, grade-level students receive 1.5 hr more weekly in writing instruction compared to the full sample. This study also indicates the importance of training teachers to teach skills in crafting arguments through writing, given its applicability to deaf students’ future academic and personal goals.