The aim of this study was to examine the role of demographic characteristics, general health and health related quality of life on the fear control. Also, the aim of study was to explore how older people percept the COVID-19 pandemic by using the component of the expanded parallel process model (EPPM), and how the possible perception may contribute to probable behavior responses to prevention and control of COVID-19.
The present study is a cross-sectional study that was conducted in Tabriz, a city in north of Iran from February to April 2021, the period that correspond with the fourth wave of COVID-19. To collect information, the Covid-19 risk perception questionnaire (based on EPPM model including efficacy, defensive responses, and perceived threat) and health related quality of life (HQOL) Short Form-36 questionnaire were used. Discriminate value was calculated to estimate fear control and danger control. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were calculated to examine the effect of demographic characteristics, general health and health-related quality of life on the fear control.
The mean age of the 350 participants was 67.9 (6.4) years. A total of 83.1% of participants were engaged in danger control processes and 16.9% in fear control processes. According to the multivariable results, significant predictors for fear control were: gender 1.57 (95% CI 1.05–2.34, 0.025), education 7.38 (1.42–38.35, p = 0.017), economic status 1.31 (0.4–0.63, p = 0.029), and significant protective factors for fear control were: body pain 0.97 (0.94–0.99, p = 0.041), general health 0.96 (0.93–0.98, p = 0.032), physical health 0.94 (0.90–0.98) and total quality of life 0.024 (0.89–0.98).
Strong associations of fear control were found with being female, being illiterate, and having a good economic status and also body pain, general health, physical health and total HQOL were significantly associated with danger control. Since, most of elderly populations have adequately higher perceptions of efficacy to counteract their threat perceptions to continue motivating these older people to engage in COVID-19 self-protective behaviors, it is necessary to emphasis on the susceptibility of target population and the severity of the COVID-19 threats.