In recent years, big data has become ubiquitous in our day-to-day lives. Therefore, it is imperative for educators to integrate nontraditional (big) data into statistics education to ensure that students are prepared for a big data reality. This study examined graduate students’ expressions of uncertainty while engaging with traditional and nontraditional big data investigation activities. We first suggest a theoretical framework based on integrated insights from statistics education and data science to analyze and describe novices’ reasoning with the various uncertainties that characterize both traditional and big data—the Variability, Data, and Phenomenon (VDP) framework. We offer a case study of graduate students’ participation in the integrated modeling approach (IMA) learning trajectory, illustrating the utility of the VDP framework in accounting for the different types of articulated uncertainties. We also discuss the teaching implications of the VDP.