The theme for World Social Work Day (WSWD) 2017 focused on “promoting environmental and community sustainability.” The day celebrated and promoted all the actions related to this theme in which social workers are engaged. The WSWD slogan reiterated the third pillar of the Global Agenda for Social Work and Social Development, developed by three international social work bodies, and was aligned with the United Nations (UN) 2030 Agenda for sustainable development. The connection between the two agendas is connected to human rights and highlights the need for some theoretical and methodological reflections to deepen the understanding of sustainable development with the aim of identifying and analyzing the foundations of social work education and practice in this field of action. This article presents background information that allows an understanding of the specific importance of social work in the achievement of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Curricular planning in social work education should be properly aligned with the SDGs to equip students with the skills and competencies necessary to work with target communities. Incorporating the SDGs into the professional curriculum of social work, as well as creating pedagogical tools to connect with new target groups, should create better opportunities for social workers to enhance their professional activities. As a specific reference, a Chilean experience is presented that demonstrates how the SDGs allow for the implementation of community empowerment strategies and policy advocacy at the local level.