The welfare and well-being of women worldwide continues to depend on the respect for basic human rights. Research on the rights of the vulnerable highlights the necessity to defend the rights of women in local and global contexts. This article aims to add to the body of existing knowledge by examining women’s rights from a global perspective and the role social workers play in advancing these rights. The methodology of this article was informed by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Based on the literature reviewed, this paper explores the advancement of women’s rights through a social work approach, specifically addressing the issues of violence and abuse against women, access to sexual and reproductive healthcare, and fair employment and reasonable working conditions. The paper proceeds with a critical analysis of the aforementioned issues concerning women’s rights and makes recommendations that would help promote the rights of women within the local and international setting. This article further suggests that improving health services, taking preventive measures, and advocating for equal pay and working conditions for women will go a long way to aid in the defence of the fundamental rights of women.