The coronavirus pandemic imposed significant changes in the care of patients in psychiatric residential facilities, especially during lockdown periods. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic on patients and staff of psychiatric residential facilities (RFs). This cross-sectional survey was conducted between 30 June and 30 July 2021 and involved 31 RFs located in the province of Verona (Italy). In total, 170 staff members and 272 residents participated in this study. Staff showing clinically significant symptoms of anxiety, depression and burnout were, respectively, 7.7%, 14.2% and 6%. Staff were concerned about the risk that COVID-19 infection might spread among residents (67.6%) and that residents could not receive an acceptable service due to service reconfiguration because of the pandemic (50.3%). Residents found it very unpleasant not to be permitted to attend family members (85.3%), and not to be allowed to engage in outdoor activities due to the restrictions (84%). Both staff and residents agree that the main problematic areas for the residents was the interdiction to meet family members or friends and the interdiction to outdoor activities, whereas problems related to the COVID-19 infection were considered by the staff members as more frequently problematic than reported by residents. The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant impact on the rehabilitation care and recovery journeys of the residents of psychiatric RFs. Therefore, sustained, and careful attention is needed to ensure that the rehabilitation needs of people with severe mental disorders are not neglected in time of pandemics.