Common-pool resources (CPR) are shared by multiple individuals. Many natural or manmade CPRs are limited: maximization of their use for individual gain may bring negative consequences for all users. The current study simulated CPR management by children, with a digital game. The player extracted fish (CPR) using three types of cards varying in extraction power. Fishing returned points needed to remain “alive” in the game. In a baseline with unlimited and unshared resources, children used predominantly the most powerful card, with shorter interresponse time between successive fishing responses. An intervention phase followed, when resources were limited and shared with virtual players. A vertical bar signaled the number of fish, which decreased with extraction and increased periodically to simulate fish reproduction. With continued experience in the game, five of six children succeeded in moderating the extraction rhythm, earning enough points to stay “alive” in the game and avoiding CPR exhaustion. Their strategies combined decreasing the use of the most powerful card and increasing the frequency of longer IRTs, which allowed for regeneration of resources. Continued exposure to the contingencies shaped a more sustainable behavior. For most natural resources, however, it is not possible to shape sustainable extraction by repeated exposure to negative consequences, because resources may be permanently exhausted. The simulation of CPR management by children may, however, reveal variables and processes involved in sustainable behavior and may also be a valuable educational tool to teach sustainable behavior and the dangers of irresponsible use of CPR.