The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded health insurance coverage in the USA, but whether it increased healthcare utilization or reduced racial/ethnic inequities in access to and utilization of care is unclear. We evaluated the ACA impact on health insurance coverage, unmet medical need, and having a personal doctor and whether this impact was modified by racial/ethnic identity among New York City (NYC) residents. We used data from multiple years of the Community Health Survey (2009–2017) and used logistic regression to assess whether having health insurance, unmet medical need, or a personal doctor varied pre- (2009–2012) versus post-ACA (2013–2017), adjusting for age, sex, nativity status, and general health. We assessed effect measure modification by race/ethnicity and stratified if we found significant interaction. We found that health insurance coverage and having a personal doctor increased post-ACA (aOR = 1.44, p < 0.001 and aOR = 1.09, p = 0.024, respectively) while having unmet medical need decreased (aOR = 0.90, p = 0.004). There was little indication of interaction between ACA and race/ethnicity; in stratified models, the ACA had a stronger impact on health insurance coverage for those of other race than all other groups (aOR = 2.16, p = 0.002 versus aOR 1.22–1.54 for white, Black, and Hispanic adults) and a stronger impact on having a personal doctor for Hispanic adults (aOR 1.27, p < 0.001 versus weaker non-significant associations for other groups), with no effect modification for unmet medical need. Thus, it appears that ACA improved healthcare access and utilization but did not have a major impact on reducing racial/ethnic inequities in these outcomes in NYC.