The purpose of the current study was to identify predisposing, enabling, and need-based factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) or HPV vaccination intentions among ethnoracial minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and gender expansive natal males. This was a secondary analysis of survey data from 299 Black and Hispanic MSM and gender expansive young (aged 18–30 years) adults living in the USA. Variable selection was informed by Anderson’s model of healthcare utilization. Outcomes were self-reported HPV vaccination and vaccine intentions. Less than half of the sample (45.5%) reported initiating (i.e., receiving at least 1 dose) HPV vaccination. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to identify relevant theoretical predictors. Among those who were unvaccinated, 14.2% were unlikely, 56.3% were undecided, and 29.4% likely to initiate HPV vaccination within the next 12 months. More favorable vaccine attitudes (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.12–2.15), past year routine check-up (aPR = 1.50; 95% CI: 1.14–1.97), and ever being diagnosed with anogenital warts (aPR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.12–2.15) were independently associated with the probability of HPV vaccination. Several enabling factors (e.g., testing for sexually transmitted infections) were not associated with HPV vaccination, suggesting routine missed opportunities. There were no associations between predictor variables and HPV vaccine intentions. Targeted efforts are needed to decrease anal cancer disparities experienced by ethnoracial minority MSM. Leveraging enabling factors already present this population (e.g., STI testing and pre-exposure prophylaxis use) are potential targets for interventions to increase the reach of HPV vaccination.