Evidence shows that mindfulness contributes to many health-related outcomes and may promote health-related behaviours by enhancing self-regulation. However, there is a lack of reliable and valid tools to measure both cognitions and behaviours associated with mindfulness practice in the Thai context. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the Cognitive Behavioural Sati Scale (CBSS), which is suitable for the Thai population.
The original 21 candidate items were identified by experts from conducting focus groups and included both newly developed items and items from existing measures. Selected items were administered to a sample of older adults (n = 318) living in the Bangkok metropolitan area, Thailand, and subjected to reliability and confirmatory factor analyses.
A hierarchical model with 3 factors (acceptance, awareness, and self-recollection) and the overarching second-order mindfulness factor demonstrated overall better fit indices compared to a hierarchical model with 2 factors (mindful behaviour and acceptance), which also achieved acceptable model fit. The full CBSS and its subscales showed good internal consistency as indicated by α = 0.70–0.86 and ω = 0.72–0.88.
These findings support reliability and internal validity of both hierarchical models with 3 and 2 facets meaning that overall mindfulness-based health behaviours can be measured using the total scale score as well as individual facets scores depending on assessment requirements in the Thai context. Future studies should examine the external reliability and validity of the CBSS with different sample populations to establish scale robustness.