Black Americans disproportionately experience higher levels of chronic stress. Mindfulness is a promising, cost-effective option for reducing stress and related mental health outcomes, such as depression and anxiety. The Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) is one of the most widely used tools to measure mindfulness; however, Black American samples have been underrepresented in validation studies of the FFMQ. Consequently, the validity of the FFMQ within Black Americans has received minimal attention. The present study assessed the psychometric properties and nomological network of the original 39-item FFMQ (FFMQ-39) and the short form 15-item FFMQ (FFMQ-15) among a non-clinical, Black American sample in the United States.
In a longitudinal study, 586 Black Americans completed either the FFMQ-39 or the FFMQ-15 at two time points one month apart, as well as measures of the constructs in mindfulness’ nomological network and demographic attributes.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 5-factor structure in both questionnaires. Both questionnaires had good fit indices (RMSEA < 0.06, SRMR < 0.08, CFI > 0.92, TFI > 0.92) and demonstrated strong test–retest reliability, expected associations with nomological network variables, and invariance across ethnic heritage, ethnic identity, everyday discrimination, lifetime discrimination, skin tone, depression level, gender, mindfulness meditation experience, and household income.
The results indicate that both the FFMQ-39 and the FFMQ-15 can validly and reliably measure mindfulness in a non-clinical, Black American sample. These findings contribute to cultural generalizability and mindfulness assessment within underrepresented populations.
The analytic plan was pre-registered on the Open Science Framework. Registration: https://osf.io/95v4m/