Consistent with power and status differences between men and women in society, men tend to participate more than women do in question-and-answer (Q&A) sessions at in-person academic conferences. This gap in participation in scientific discourse may perpetuate the status quo. The current research examines whether this gender gap in participation in Q&A sessions extends to virtual conferences, which have become more prevalent during the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to shifts in conference formats to enable asynchronous, anonymous, and/or simultaneous participation, we examined whether virtual conferences are more inclusive, and mitigate the gender gap in Q&A participation. Across four virtual conferences that varied in gender representation and Q&A structured format, men continued to take a disproportionate amount of time and space in Q&A sessions. Disproportionate participation did not significantly vary between in-person and virtual formats and did not systematically vary by how the Q&A session was organized. In an all-chat virtual conference, gender differences in volubility were attenuated among higher status academics. Gendered participation and volubility were also impacted by which sub-discipline the presentation was in. Discussion considers the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for understanding the persistence of gender inequality in science. We encourage future research that attends to the cultural factors that promote or mitigate gender disparities in participation.