This study aimed to investigate the phenomenon of self-injury among female adolescents. The research was qualitative, and the sampling method was purposive non-random; the sample size was 20 Iranian girl adolescents aged 13–15 years who had experienced non-suicidal self-injury. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The data analysis process was performed during three coding steps (open, axial, selective), through which the basic codes and categories were identified. Study results indicate that the main factors in adolescents’ self-injury were individual or psychological (thoughts, emotions, and behaviors) and social (peers, family, communication with different gender, communication with others, media/cyberspace, school, and economic). In the former, the role of emotions was remarkable, while in the latter, the family played a key role. Further, results revealed that communication within the family was an important motivating and sustentative factor in adolescents’ self-injury. The results can help counselors in working with adolescents who self-injure; results can also be used in the development and implementation of treatment plans.