Adolescence is characterised by a peak in sensation seeking accompanied by gradually developing self-control skills. Adolescents typically show steeper delay discounting performance than other age groups; a feature that is transdiagnostically related to a variety of mental health disorders. However, delay discounting performance is not a singular mental process but involves both risk/reward and future orientation elements, usually operationalised as probability/risk and time discounting tasks, respectively. To clarify the specific relations between the risk/reward and future orientation elements of delay discounting and different types of mental health problems, two bi-factor models and a series of structural equation models (SEMs) were fitted to multi-informant (parent and adolescent self-reported) mental health data from a large UK study. A transdiagnostic promotive role of future orientation was found using bi-factor modelling to separate general and dimension-specific mental health variation; however, this was limited to parent reports. In addition, future orientation was negatively associated with conduct problems and ADHD symptoms, but positively associated with emotional problems. Risk aversion was negatively associated with conduct problems, but positively associated with emotional and peer problems. The findings highlight that risk/reward and future orientation elements of delay discounting play partly distinct roles in different mental health problems and can serve both promotive and risk roles during adolescence. Findings also illuminate which elements of delay discounting should be intervention targets for different mental health concerns.