Based on the network theory of mental disorders, this study used network analysis to examine the network of ODD symptoms and multilevel family factors and identify the most crucial family factors influencing ODD symptoms in children. A total of 718 Chinese migrant children aged 7–14 years participated in this study. This study measured ODD symptoms, family system-level variables (3 factors), family dyadic-level variables (6 factors), and family individual-level variables (6 factors) with factors selected based on the multilevel family factors theory of ODD symptoms. The results indicated that (1) “annoy” was the center symptom of ODD, (2) “annoy” and “vindictive” was the main bridge connecting the multilevel family factors, and (3) family cohesion at the family system level, parent–child conflict at the family dyadic level, and parental depression at the family individual level were critical central and bridging influencing factors. The findings of this study highlight the critical role of “annoy” and “vindictive” symptoms in the activation of ODD symptom networks in children and provide a basis for future improvements in diagnostic criteria. These potential core and bridge factors might become key intervention targets for childhood ODD.