Neighborhood threats can increase risk for externalizing problems, including aggressive, oppositional, and delinquent behavior. Yet, there is substantial variability in how youth respond to neighborhood threats. Difficulty with cognitive functioning, particularly in the face of emotional information, may increase risk for externalizing in youth who live in neighborhoods with higher threats. However, little research has examined: 1) associations between neighborhood threats and executive networks involved in cognitive functioning or 2) whether executive networks may amplify risk for externalizing in the context of neighborhood threats. Further, most research on neighborhood threats does not account for youth’s experiences in other social contexts. Utilizing the large, sociodemographically diverse cohort of youth (ages 9–10) included in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive DevelopmentSM Study, we identified four latent profiles of youth based on threats in their neighborhoods, families, and schools: low threat in all contexts, elevated family threat, elevated neighborhood threat, and elevated threat in all contexts. The elevated neighborhood threat and elevated all threat profiles showed lower behavioral performance on an emotional n-back task relative to low threat and elevated family threat profiles. Lower behavioral performance in the elevated neighborhood threat profile specifically was paralleled by lower executive network activity during a cognitive challenge. Moreover, among youth with lower executive network activity, higher probability of membership in the elevated neighborhood threat profile was associated with higher externalizing. Together, these results provide evidence that interactions between threats that are concentrated in youth’s neighborhoods and attenuated executive network function may contribute to risk for externalizing problems.