Adolescence is a period marked by significant vulnerability to the onset of mental health concerns. Within adults, the metacognitive model of psychological disorders advocates for the involvement of metacognitive beliefs in the onset, and maintenance, of psychopathology. The current study aimed to assess the applicability of the metacognitive model in adolescence by exploring the relationship, as well as the trajectory, between metacognitive beliefs and psychological distress. The longitudinal prospective cohort study investigated data from a community-based sample of participants aged 12 to 13. Self-report assessment measures of metacognitive beliefs, psychological distress, and somatic distress are reported across four time-points. Baseline assessments are reported for 70 participants, which reduced to 53 participants at time-point four. Correlational analyses demonstrated a significant relationship between overall metacognition, as well as negative metacognitive beliefs, and psychological distress at each of the four time-points. Generalised Estimating Equations found a significant association between metacognitive predictors and psychological distress over the four time-points. These results indicate that negative metacognitive beliefs, positive metacognitive beliefs, metacognitive beliefs related to superstition, punishment, and responsibility, low perceived levels of cognitive confidence and cognitive self-consciousness predict psychological distress over 12 months in adolescents aged 12 to 13. The strongest longitudinal correlational structure was found for the model of negative metacognitive beliefs and psychological distress. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the positive linear relationship between metacognitive beliefs and psychological distress in adolescence. The study provides an important contribution to understanding the role of metacognitive beliefs in the aetiology and perpetuation of psychological distress in adolescence.