Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for conduct problems in children and adolescents aims to decrease behaviors which may be considered moral transgressions (e.g., aggressive and antisocial behavior) and to increase behaviors that benefit others (e.g., helping, comforting). However, the moral aspects underlying these behaviors have received relatively little attention. In view of increasing the effectiveness of CBT for conduct problems, insights into morality and empathy based on studies from developmental psychology and cognitive neuroscience are reviewed and integrated into a previously proposed model of social problem-solving (Matthys & Schutter, Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 25:552–572, 2022). Specifically, this narrative review discusses developmental psychology studies on normative beliefs in support of aggression and antisocial behavior, clarification of goals, and empathy. These studies are complemented by cognitive neuroscience research on harm perception and moral thinking, harm perception and empathy, others’ beliefs and intentions, and response outcome learning and decision-making. A functional integration of moral thinking and empathy into social problem-solving in group CBT may contribute to the acceptance of morality-related issues by children and adolescents with conduct problems.