Neutropenic ulcerations are characterized by mucosal ulcerations which occur in the presence of neutropenia, suggesting a direct link between neutropenia and mucosal ulceration. An oral ulcer can be labeled as “neutropenic” only if the patients have primary (typically congenital) or secondary neutropenia, and neutropenia is the sole causative factor. Oral mucosal ulcers observed in patients undergoing oncologic therapy may also be termed as “neutropenic ulcers”, but the pathogenesis of these oral ulcers more likely involves mucosal events related to trauma, microbial factors, and direct cytotoxicity. In cancer patients, the early appearance of oral ulcers is often attributed to oral mucositis which is a condition primarily caused by the direct mucosal cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy. Oral ulcers that develop later during or after active cancer therapy may result from intraoral trauma and typically manifest on non-keratinized areas of the oral mucosa which are more susceptible to mucosal damage. In patients undergoing chemotherapy, factors such as disturbances in mucosal barrier function as well as bone marrow suppression lead to reduced neutrophil count and function, and can contribute to the development of oral ulcers. While the etiology of oral ulcers in cancer therapy receiving patients can vary, it is important to emphasize that the host’s response plays a crucial role in the progression and repair process of these lesions. This narrative review presents the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, and potential management approaches for oral ulcerations in neutropenic patients, with a particular focus on clarifying the usage of the term “neutropenic ulcer” since this term lacks diagnostic specificity and can be misleading in clinical practice regarding the underlying causes and treatment strategies.