The current study was designed to assess the association of serum transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in children with primary hypertension. The present single-center prospective trial examined 182 patients diagnosed with primary hypertension in Children’s Hospital, Capital Institute of Pediatrics, between January 2021 and September 2022. Clinical data were analyzed, and ambulatory blood pressure was assessed for 24 h. LVH, the commonest subclinical cardiac feature of hypertension, was assessed by echocardiography. According to left ventricular geometry, cases were assigned to the LVH (n = 44) and normal geometry (n = 138) groups. Serum TGF-β1 amounts were quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were established to analyze various variables for their predictive values in LVH. Among 182 children with primary hypertension, the concentrations of serum TGF-β1 were higher in stage 2 hypertension than in stage 1 (47.3 (38.8, 52.5) vs. 46.0 (38.6, 48.2) ng/L, Z = − 2.376; P = 0.018). Additionally, serum TGF-β1 content showed a positive correlation with BP levels (P < 0.05). TGF-β1 amounts were significantly elevated in the LVH group compared with the normal geometry group (51.7 (46.1, 54.9) vs. 46.1 (38.7, 48.1) ng/L, Z = − 4.324; P = 0.0000). Serum TGF-β1 content was positively associated with LVH (r = 0.321, P = 0.0000). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed BMI (OR = 1.188, 95% CI 1.082–1.305; P = 0.0000) and elevated serum TGF-β1 content (OR = 1.063, 95% CI 1.016–1.113; P = 0.009) independently predicted LVH. A multivariable logistic regression model considering BMI and TGF-β1 content in LVH prediction was 0.771, with sensitivity and specificity of 72.7% and 70.3%, respectively.
Conclusion: These data revealed an association of serum TGF-β1 with BP in children with primary hypertension. Serum TGF-β1 concentration was positively correlated with hypertensive cardiac damage. Serum TGF-β1 might constitute a valuable molecular marker for the prediction of LVH in children with primary hypertension. The combination of BMI and TGF-β1 has a certain diagnostic and predictive value for LVH in children with primary hypertension, which may provide a new reference index for early clinical identification of hypertensive cardiac damage.
What is Known:
• Experimental and clinical data indicated TGF-β1 is involved in BP elevation.
• TGF-β1 is positively correlated with LVMI and hypertrophy in adults.
What is New:
• Our current study reveals an association of serum TGF-β1 with BP in children with primary hypertension.
• Elevated serum TGF-β1 level is positively associated with LVH in children with primary hypertension.
• The combination of BMI and TGF-β1 has a certain diagnostic and predictive value for LVH in children with primary hypertension.