People increasingly need to collaborate with others in their workplace to perform their jobs. Studies have shown that task interdependence can have important consequences for teams and organizations, and emerging research suggests that it may be contributing to gender inequality. In this paper, we expand upon this literature to propose a relationship between interdependence and the gender wage gap. Relying on the lack-of-fit model, we predicted that the relationship between interdependence and the gender wage gap would vary with the gender composition of the occupation. This prediction was evaluated using multi-source panel data from a US sample of approximately 8000 individuals. We found that higher levels of interdependence were positively associated with gender differences in wages among people working in male-dominated occupations but negatively associated with gender differences in wages among those working in female-dominated occupations. Supplemental analyses using individual fixed effects, an expanded sample, and alternative job characteristics provide support for our arguments. Taken together, our theory and findings offer novel insight into the consequences of rising interdependence for individuals and their career outcomes.