Violence against women is a global phenomenon, and intimate partner violence is the most common form of violence faced by women in the world. Around 30% of women in the world, on average, and 33% in India experience intimate partner violence during their lifetime. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether consanguinity protects women from spousal violence. National Family Health Survey 2015–16 (NFHS-4) data were used. The study sample comprised 60,824 currently married women aged 15–49 years. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the likelihood of all types of spousal violence against women was higher among consanguineous unions compared with non-consanguineous unions in India. The association between consanguineous marriage and spousal violence was found to be positive and significant in the southern and eastern regions of India and among Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The association was not significant among Muslims. Differences in socio-cultural norms and practices across the regions of India, and among different socio-cultural groups, can perhaps explain these variations. Women belonging in higher age groups, from Other Backward Castes, those who were working and those with a low level of educational attainment and socioeconomic standing had a higher risk of experiencing intimate partner violence. Couples in a consanguineous marriage should be given adequate counselling to reduce intimate partner violence in India, and similarly culturally diverse countries. This would also help reach Target 5.2 of the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030.