According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over 61 million Americans have a disability, which translates to about 26 percent of the national population. The most common types of disability are physical (13.7 percent), or those that impact mobility, and intellectual (10.8 percent), or those related to cognitive processing. The Bureau of Justice Statistics has reported that 32 percent of people in state prisons and 40 percent of people in county jails have at least one disability, rates that demonstrate alarming disproportionality. Yet the history of the disability rights movement, the impact of the Americans with Disabilities Act for people with disabilities who are involved with the criminal justice system, and the implications of disability justice and critical disability theory for the field of social work are not well understood. The purpose of this article is to review these under-recognized topics and offer recommendations for addressing this neglected area of social work education, research, policy, and practice.