The massive planting of exotic species under the so-called forestry model has dramatically transformed the landscapes of south-central Chile, replacing diverse agricultural, livestock and forest landscapes with forest monocultures, which are highly water-consuming and prone to massive fires. This has meant a productive simplification, and peasant communities have been displaced and stripped of their traditional ways of life. However, in this landscape of disaster, biotic communities of fungi have flourished, and with them human communities of collectors have learned to sustain themselves in a monocultural and privatized scenario. This paper is based on a multi-local ethnographic approach, built upon 26 semi-structured interviews, participant observation, social mapping, creating a calendar and a trend line. The text documents the processes of two communities affected by massive fires which have developed organization, agencies and practices. Mushrooms (callampas in Chilean Spanish) are claimed as a common good derived from the forestry model, claiming access to their use and usufruct of land belonging to forestry companies. They have also developed local governance systems for the care and better use of this new resource for common use. Forestry companies, for their part, try to subsume these practices in their territorial governance processes, disputing these commons’ meaning and purpose. Both cases contribute to empirically address the central thesis of this article, according to which communalization exercises within contexts of capitalist expansion constitute responses of survival, resistance and adaptation in landscapes transformed and devastated by extractivist industries.