While interest in sexualityresearch is growing, in the past, it has been largely invisible in gerontology. By exploring the full range and dimensions of sexuality and their interrelationships with multiple factors, this article presents conceptual, substantive, and methodological advances for the field of sexuality in later life. Based on the Sexual Equity Framework, an extension of the Health Equity Promotion Model, this article highlights the heterogeneity and intersectionality of sexuality across the life course, examining how historical and contemporary contexts frame key dimensions of sexuality at multiple levels (intrapersonal, interpersonal, sociocultural, and structural) and their relationship with sexual quality of life. Utilizing findings from Aging with Pride: National Health, Aging and Sexuality/Gender Study, the heterogeneity and intersectionality of age, gender, race, and ethnicity are critical to understanding sexuality and its dimensions in later life. Many adults experience changes in sexual and gender identities over time. Affirming sexual and gender identities, social connections, and health-promoting behaviors are positively associated with sexual quality of life, while sexual stigma and marginalization have adverse consequences. The study of sexuality needs to be fully integrated into gerontology. The Sexual Equity Framework explicates the potential deleterious effect of historical and contemporary structures on sexuality as well the important roles of affirmation, agency, and resilience among older adults, and recognizes the important role of human rights to advance sexual quality of life. Important directions for future research, practices, and policies are outlined.