The Strong Black woman (SBW) schema refers to the U.S. cultural gender role expectation of Black women as resilient despite adversity, selfless, and serving as caretakers and providers. Previous scholars have examined the nature, origins, and consequences of this schema, including the ways in which Black women navigate the SBW in their workplaces, communities, and relationships. Overall, research frames the schema as a paradox, noting that endorsing the SBW can compromise Black women’s health while simultaneously encouraging resilience. In this review, we aim to provide a descriptive and holistic analysis for understanding gaps in the literature, as well as providing suggestions for the future. Using a scoping review, we examine the current state of social science knowledge about the SBW, focusing on its character, socialization practices, and consequences for Black women’s physical and mental health. We end by discussing directions for future research on the SBW schema.