Ecuador is a major host country for Colombians fleeing violence and Venezuelans escaping a complex humanitarian crisis, many of whom are pregnant women.
We used national birth registry data (2018–2020) to compare the maternal care and infant outcomes of Venezuelan and Colombian immigrants with Ecuadorian nationals.
Venezuelan immigrants had a lower adjusted odds (AOR) for adequate prenatal care (AOR = 0.64;95%CI = 0.62,0.67) but a higher AOR for institutional (AOR = 2.68;95%CI = 1.84,3.93) and C-section delivery (AOR = 1.28;95%CI = 1.23,1.32) and birthing infants who were moderate-late preterm (AOR = 1.12;95%CI = 1.05,1.20), very preterm (AOR = 1.20;95%CI = 1.04,1.40), extremely pre-term (AOR = 1.65;95%CI = 1.27,2.14), low birthweight (LBW) (AOR = 1.11;95%CI = 1.05,1.17), very LBW (AOR = 1.35;95%CI = 1.12,1.62), and extremely LBW (AOR = 1.71;95%CI = 1.36,2.16). Colombians had decreased AORs for adequate prenatal care (AOR = 0.82;95%CI = 0.78,0.87) but increased AORs for institutional (AOR = 2.03;95%CI = 1.19,3.46) and C-section deliveries (AOR = 1.07;95%CI = 1.01,1.13) and birthing infants with moderate-late preterm (AOR = 1.17;95%CI = 1.05,1.30) but not LBW.
The findings underscore the need to address the causes of adequate prenatal care, excess C-sections, and poorer infant outcomes among refugee and immigrant women, especially Venezuelans.