Romanian emigration rates are among the highest in Europe. This cross-sectional study estimates the prevalence of full-threshold eating disorders (EDs) and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFEDs) among left-behind female adolescents (LBFA) compared with non-left-behind female adolescents (NLBFA) living with their parents in Romania. In addition, we investigated the associations between full-threshold EDs and OSFEDs with self-esteem, hopelessness, and thin-ideal internalization in both groups. The data was collected from 717 female adolescents (aged 14–18). Results showed no significant differences in prevalence of full-threshold EDs and OSFEDs between LBFA (n = 128) and NLBFA (n = 589). Multiple logistic regressions revealed that self-esteem and zBMI were significant predictors of OSFEDs in the LBFA group, while thin-ideal internalization and self-esteem predicted OSFEDs in the NLBFA group. There was no significant association between presumptive predictors and full-threshold EDs among LBFA. Findings suggest that parental emigration is not associated with an increased prevalence of full and subthreshold EDs among female adolescents.