<imgsrc=”” border=”0″ align=”left” alt=”image”>Cognitive and affective biases impact clinical decision-making in general medicine. This article explores how such biases might specifically affect psychiatrists’ attitudes and prescribing patterns regarding two medication classes (stimulants and benzodiazepines) and addresses related issues. To supplement personal observations, selective PubMed narrative literature searches were conducted using relevant title/abstract terms, followed by snowballing for additional pertinent titles. Acknowledging that there are many more types of biases, we describe and use clinical vignettes to illustrate 17 cognitive and affective biases that might influence clinicians’ psychopharmacological practices. Factors possibly underlying these biases include temperamental differences and both preprofessional and professional socialization. Mitigating strategies can reduce the potentially detrimental impacts that biases may impose on clinical care. How extensively these biases appear, how they differ among psychiatrists and across classes of medication, and how they might be most effectively addressed to minimize harms deserve further systematic study.