The purpose of this review is to scope the literature on the conceptualization, use, and outcomes associated with empathy and compassion in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Eligible studies included quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-methods research that presented primary data on the conceptualization, use, and outcomes associated with empathy and compassion in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Relevant studies were identified through CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PEDRO. Twenty-four studies were included (participant n = 3715): 13 quantitative, six mixed-methods, and five qualitative. In qualitative analysis, empathy and compassion were conceptualized as both intrinsic and exhibitory. Where self-compassion was examined as an intervention for patients, improvements in anxiety, depression, and quality of life were reported. Survey data suggested that when rehabilitation health care providers were perceived to be more empathic, patients reported greater treatment satisfaction, acceptance, adherence, and goal attainment. Individuals receiving and health care providers who deliver rehabilitative care conceptualize empathy and compassion as valuable in physical medicine and rehabilitation settings, with cognitive and behavioural elements described. Health care provider empathy and compassion-based interventions may influence outcomes positively in this context. More research is needed to understand the mechanisms of action of empathy and compassion and effectiveness in physical medicine and rehabilitation settings.