Gender equality is generally discussed as a liberal goal within international discourse. But nonliberal conceptions of gender egalitarianism coexist with and interact with liberal understandings in many contemporary societies. This article offers analysis of a Muslim matricultural society in Western Sahara made up of the Sahrawi people, where domestic violence is rare, where gender egalitarianism is highly valued, and where women are encouraged to become politically and economically active. The article explores the meaning of female agency in a society with cultural norms that promote women’s autonomy, yet also in the context of a society more broadly constrained by a lack of self-determination due to external occupation. The study draws on interviews and focus groups in Dakhla and El Aaiún.