The interpersonal harms that young people experience beyond their families have been documented internationally as have the challenges of protecting those effected using existing child welfare systems. Concern about this in the UK has led to development of ‘contextual’ child protection systems—capable of targeting the peer group, school and community contexts where extra-familial harm (EFH) occurs. This study examined whether reviews of serious incidents (serious case reviews (SCRs)) provide an evidence-base for understanding the contextual dynamics of EFH and/or developing contextual responses. SCRs (n = 49) from 2010–2020, where adolescents were harmed in extra-familial contexts, were analysed over two stages. Stage 1 involved thematic coding under four research questions. Using a framework analysis, Stage 1 themes were grouped around according to: contexts associated with EFH; the nature of social work responses and case review recommendations. Findings suggest that SCRs provide a limited account of the contextual dynamics of EFH. Whilst reviews illustrate that social work responses rarely address the contextual dynamics of EFH, many reviewers have neglected to focus on this shortfall when recommending service improvements. For case reviews to inform contextual child protection systems, information provided to review authors and the design of review requires adaptation.