This study investigates the effect of public health education (PHE) on migrant workers’ health status in China, using the data collected from the China Migrants Dynamic Survey project. The analysis employs a probit model, whose results suggest that, in general, PHE has a statistically significant and positive impact on migrant workers’ self-rated health status and exerts a negative impact on their incidence rate of daily diseases. We also utilize the conditional mixed process method to address the potential endogenous issue. Further analyses reveal that there are significant differences in the impacts of different modes of PHE on migrant workers’ health status, among which the mode of health knowledge lectures plays the most prominent role. Nonetheless, an additional analysis indicates that in addition to PHE, other public health services, such as the establishment of health records, also have a significant effect on the promotion of migrant workers’ health status. A disaggregated analysis reveals that this impact is heterogeneous among different generations, genders as well as those with different income levels. The findings shed light on the importance of promoting equal access to public health services.