Prevalence rates of chronic illness during childhood and adolescence have increased significantly over the past several decades, with recent estimates as high as 16–27% across multiple countries (Barrio Cortes et al., 2020; Denny et al., 2014; Van Cleave et al., 2010). As Metzner et al. (this issue) describe many children and adolescents with various medical diagnoses require inpatient rehabilitation treatment with the goal of improving functioning and physical well-being. The extant literature suggests youth’s active engagement and motivation are predictive of improved rehabilitation outcomes (James et al., 2016; Levac, 2016; Meyns et al., 2018). Consistent with the Common Sense Model of illness representation (Leventhal et al., 1980, 2003), child and adolescent beliefs about chronic illness are expected to predict self-management and outcomes (for review, see Law et al. ).