We investigated the receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills of four separate groups using the 42-item ASL-Receptive Skills Test: Deaf high school-aged students who attended a residential school; deaf incoming college students who preferred signed language; deaf incoming college students who preferred spoken language; and typically hearing college-aged second language-second modality learners (M2L2) of ASL. Many deaf students learn ASL as a delayed first language due to a lack of sign language models within their home environments. In contrast, M2L2 students likely engage in some transfer between their first (spoken) and second (signed) language when learning ASL. All four groups scored similarly overall on the ASL-RST (~77% correct), and all four groups scored the lowest for number-distribution, spatial verbs location, size-and-shape-specifiers, and role shift. We present instructional implications that include incorporation of ASL standards and evidence-based instructional strategies for all four groups.