This study examined relationships between participation in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) programs and citizenship status, and between TANF participation and restrictive TANF policies. Its sample of 8,657 adults (yielding 66,680 person-years, the units of analysis) was extracted from a 2001–2009 national longitudinal data set. Generalized estimating equations showed TANF participation to be associated in a positive direction with prior TANF receipt and with poverty, single motherhood, number of dependent children, and race/ethnicity (specifically African American, Hispanic, and other racial/ethnic minority groups). Negative associations were found between participation and the following: citizen status, being less educated, being unemployed, being younger, and availability of state funds for noncitizens. The variables birth outside United States and policy of rendering noncitizens ineligible were not significantly associated with participation. This study’s main finding was that noncitizens were less likely than citizens to participate in TANF, regardless of nativity or restrictiveness of TANF policies. This debunks the notion that immigrants should be barred from the United States because they burden its welfare system. Other implications for policy are discussed as well.