Women with severe preeclampsia often present with more health complaints compared to those with uncomplicated pregnancies. Estimating the quality of life of women affected with severe preeclampsia could provide direction for further interventions. However, the current measurement of the quality of life has not been culturally adapted and validated for this population. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt, and test the reliability and validity of the World Health Organization Quality-of-Life-Bref Scale (WHOQOL-BREF) in southern Ethiopia among women with severe preeclampsia.
An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in southern Ethiopia in selected hospitals with randomly recruited women with severe preeclampsia. Cultural adaptation and validation techniques were used to translate and adapt the WHOQOL-BREF scale. Face, content validity, forward and backward translations, and synthesis were computed using an expert panel. The scale was pretested and adjusted accordingly. Internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha) and test–retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = ICC) were examined. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was computed to test the fit of the structure to the local setting before conducting exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Multiple methods for determining the number of factors extracted (scree test, eigenvalues) were used. We compared the original English structure with the new structure in the study setting and extracted a new structure using EFA.
The internal consistency reliabilities ranged from 0.8045 to 0.9123 indicating good-to-excellent reliability. The item‑level content validity ranged from 0.86 to 1.00; the scale‑level content validity index was 0.97. In CFA, the model fit indices were unacceptable (Comparative Fit Index (CFI = 0.87), Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.23), Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR = 0.38), Tucker Lewis Index (TLI = 0.85) and (PCLOSE = 0.00). Three new factor structures were extracted using EFA for current research with a total variance was 91%.
The failure of the original scale in this study population highlights the importance of culturally adapting tool to local settings. EFA confirmed a three-factor structure, inconsistent with the original English structure.