Suicide is a serious public health issue and prisoners represent a particularly high-risk group. Though there is consensus that suicide is embedded within culture, there have been limited empirical investigations into racial/ethnic variability concerning suicidal ideation and behavior among prisoners. The present study aimed to address this gap, increasing insight into the prevalence and correlates of suicidal thoughts and attempted suicide according to prisoners’ racial/ethnic background. Cross-sectional data were drawn from a nationally representative sample of 17,891 prisoners housed within 326 prisons across the United States. Analyses revealed that prisoners who identify as White were more likely to report a lifetime history of suicidal thoughts (13%) and attempts (19%) as compared to those who identify as Black (8% and 10%, respectively) and Hispanic/Other (8% and 13%, respectively). Data also highlight some similarities and differences in correlates of suicidal thoughts and attempts across racial/ethnic groups. Collectively, there is preliminary evidence to suggest that prisoners’ racial/ethnic background may shape whether and why they think about, and engage in, suicide. More research is needed on racial/ethnic variability in prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation and behavior among prisoners, especially with respect to culturally relevant factors that might explain this variability.