In preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), a decision between early delivery with prematurity complications and pregnancy prolongation bearing the risk of chorioamnionitis has to be made. To define disadvantages of delayed prolongation, latency duration of PPROM in expectantly managed pregnancies was investigated. We included those PPROMs > 48 h leading to preterm birth prior 37 weeks’ gestation and retrospectively analyzed 84 preterm infants fulfilling these criteria. The association between latency duration/appearance of PPROM and respiratory outcome (primary outcomes) and neurological outcome (secondary outcomes) was investigated. The study showed that latency duration of PPROM is not associated with clinical or histological chorioamnionitis (p = 0.275; p = 0.332). As the numerous clinical parameters show multicollinearity between each other, we performed a multiple regression analysis to consider this fact. Respiratory distress syndrome is significantly associated with gestational age at PPROM (p < 0.001), and surfactant application is significantly associated with PPROM duration (p = 0.014). The other respiratory parameters including steroids and diuretics therapy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and the neurological parameters (intraventricular hemorrhage, Bayley II testing at a corrected age of 24 months) were not significantly associated with PPROM duration or gestational age at PPROM diagnosis.
Conclusion: Latency duration of PPROM was not associated with adverse neonatal outcome in expectantly and carefully managed pregnancies, but respiratory distress syndrome was pronounced. The observed effect of pronounced respiratory distress syndrome can be treated with surfactant preparations and was not followed by increased rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
What is Known:
• In case of preterm premature rupture of membranes, a decision between pregnancy prolongation with the risk of chorioamnionitis and early delivery with prematurity complications has to be made.
• Chorioamnionitis is a dangerous situation for the pregnant woman and the fetus.
• Impaired neurodevelopmental outcome is strongly correlated with pronounced prematurity due to the increased rate of serious complications.
What is New:
• Respiratory distress syndrome is significantly associated with gestational age at PPROM, and surfactant application is significantly associated with PPROM duration.
• Latency duration of PPROM is not associated with adverse respiratory neonatal outcome (therapy with continuous positive airway pressure, therapy with diuretics and/or steroids, bronchopulmonary dysplasia) in expectantly and carefully managed pregnancies.
• Intraventricular hemorrhage and Bayley II testing at a corrected age of 24 months are not associated with latency duration of PPROM when pregnancies are carefully observed.