In 2014, the Singapore Health Services (SingHealth), an academic medical center, implemented a dual-level competency framework for medical social workers; it comprises 23 behavioral descriptors and six competency clusters at the general level and 30 behavioral descriptors and six competency clusters at the advanced level. This study adopted a qualitative approach to explore the experience among medical social workers with supervisory roles in the implementation of this competency framework. Findings showed that implementation of the competency framework lifted professional standards and image of the profession. The competency framework also helped foster stronger networks, trust, and partnerships among SingHealth organizations. Contextual features that influenced its implementation were as follows: workforce capacity and capability, management support, opportunities, training road maps, and staff’s personal life stage. Operationalizing terms used in the competency framework and specifying the validity period of each competency domain within the framework were found to be crucial to its implementation.