Background: Internet- and mobile-based interventions are effective for the treatment of chronic pain. However, little is known about patients’ willingness to engage with these types of interventions and how the uptake of such interventions can be improved. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify people’s acceptance, uptake, and adherence (primary outcomes) with regard to an internet- and mobile-based intervention for chronic pain and the influence of an information video as an acceptance-facilitating intervention (AFI). Methods: In this randomized controlled trial with a parallel design, we invited 489 individuals with chronic pain to participate in a Web-based survey assessing the acceptance of internet- and mobile-based interventions with the offer to receive an unguided internet- and mobile-based intervention for chronic pain after completion. Two versions of the Web-based survey (with and without AFI) were randomly sent to two groups: one with AFI (n=245) and one without AFI (n=244). Participants who completed the Web-based survey with or without AFI entered the intervention group or the control group, respectively. In the survey, the individuals’ acceptance of pain interventions, measured with a 4-item scale (sum score ranging from 4 to 20), predictors of acceptance, sociodemographic and pain-related variables, and physical and emotional functioning were assessed. Uptake rates (log in to the intervention) and adherence (number of completed modules) to the intervention was assessed 4 months after intervention access. To examine which factors influence acceptance, uptake rate, and adherence in the internet- and mobile-based interventions, we conducted additional exploratory subgroup analyses. Results: In total, 57 (intervention group) and 58 (control group) participants in each group completed the survey and were included in the analyses. The groups did not differ with regard to acceptance, uptake rate, or adherence (P=.64, P=.56, P=.75, respectively). Most participants reported moderate (68/115, 59.1%) to high (36/115, 31.3%) acceptance, with 9.6% (11/115) showing low acceptance (intervention group: mean 13.91, SD 3.47; control group: mean 13.61, SD 3.50). Further, 67% (38/57, intervention group) and 62% (36/58, control group) had logged into the intervention. In both groups, an average of 1.04 (SD 1.51) and 1.14 (SD 1.90) modules were completed, respectively. Conclusions: The informational video was not effective with regard to acceptance, uptake rate, or adherence. Despite the high acceptance, the uptake rate was only moderate and adherence was remarkably low. This study shows that acceptance can be much higher in a sample participating in an internet- and mobile-based intervention efficacy trial than in the target population in routine health care settings. Thus, future research should focus not only on acceptance and uptake facilitating interventions but also on ways to influence adherence. Further research should be conducted within routine health care settings with more representative samples of the target population. Trial Registration: German Clinical Trial Registration DRKS00006183; https://www.bfarm.de/DE/Das-BfArM/Aufgaben/Deutsches-Register-Klinischer-Studien/_node.html ?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00006183 (Archived by WebCite at https://www.webcitation.org/70ebHDhne)
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