Immigrant African gay and bisexual men (GBM) are at risk for substance use and adverse mental health outcomes due to negative experiences in home and host countries. Little is known about correlates of substance use and mental health outcomes in this population. We explored pre- and post-migratory factors associated with substance use and depression in recently migrated African GBM. Participants (N = 70) were recruited between July and November 2015 in NYC. Eligible participants were administered a structured questionnaire. Correlates of substance use and depression were identified using bivariate and multivariable analyses. Factors independently associated with current substance use were age, openness about sexual orientation, homophobic experiences in home country, forced sex in home country, current housing instability, and internalized homophobia. Factors independently associated with depression were post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and alcohol use. Substance use and depression were associated with negative experiences in home and host country.