Prominent conceptual models characterize schizophrenia as a dysconnectivity syndrome, with recent research focusing on the contributions of the cerebellum in this framework. The present study examined the role of the cerebellum and its effective connectivity to the cerebrum during sensorimotor synchronization in schizophrenia. Specifically, the role of the cerebellum in temporally coordinating cerebral motor activity was examined through path analysis. Thirty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls completed a finger-tapping fMRI task including tone-paced synchronization and self-paced continuation tapping at a 500 ms intertap interval (ITI). Behavioral data revealed shorter and more variable ITIs during self-paced continuation, greater clock (vs motor) variance, and greater force of tapping in the schizophrenia group. In a whole-brain analysis, groups showed robust activation of the cerebellum during self-paced continuation but not during tone-paced synchronization. However, effective connectivity analysis revealed decreased connectivity in individuals with schizophrenia between the cerebellum and primary motor cortex but increased connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus during self-paced continuation compared with healthy controls. These findings in schizophrenia indicate diminished temporal coordination of cerebral motor activity by cerebellum during the continuation tapping portion of sensorimotor synchronization. Taken together with the behavioral finding of greater temporal variability in schizophrenia, these effective connectivity results are consistent with structural and temporal models of dysconnectivity in the disorder.