Using nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11, this study relied on latent class analysis (LCA) to advance a subpopulation view of parent involvement (PI) in elementary school. Four PI subpopulation profiles were yielded using the LCA approach. Two of these parent subpopulations were involved in a limited number of school-based PI activities. Two others were involved in multiple activities at the school. It is significant that additional latent class regression analyses indicated that membership in these PI profile groups could be predicted by parents’ sociodemographic characteristics, especially their ethnicity, occupational status, family income, and social capital. Together, these findings highlight needs for school social workers to help schools develop PI programs and policies that are more nuanced. PI initiatives need to be tailored to fit the characteristics of particular parent subpopulations and particular school community contexts.