To compare the health beliefs and infant vaccination behavior of mothers of four different ethno-cultural backgrounds: Israeli-born Jewish and Arab-Bedouin and immigrants from the Former Soviet Union and Ethiopia; to examine the associations between initial and subsequent infant vaccination behaviors of mothers and to identify predictors of vaccination behaviors. A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in selected community neighborhoods. A quota sample included 100 mothers with infants aged 18–24 months (N = 400) from each of the four ethno-cultural groups. Data were collected through questionnaires and examination of the infant vaccination cards. Both groups of immigrant mothers had the lowest adherence to the recommended vaccination regime. Our findings indicate that maternal behaviors regarding infant vaccinations were determined mainly by the behavior at the previous recommended vaccination stage. Different ethno-cultural groups presented different sociodemographic predictors of vaccination behaviors. These predictors only affected the vaccinations at the early stage of 2 months. Policy makers should be aware that mother’s vaccination behaviors vary according to ethno-cultural groups to establish culturally tailored intervention programs.