Theories of the locus of visual selective attention dysfunction in schizophrenia propose that the deficits arise from either an inability to maintain working memory representations that guide attention, or difficulty focusing lower-level visual attention mechanisms. However, these theoretical accounts neglect the role of long-term memory representations in controlling attention. Here, we show that the control of visual attention is impaired in people with schizophrenia, and that this impairment is driven by an inability to shift top-down attentional control from working memory to long-term memory across practice. Next, we provide converging evidence for the source of attentional impairments in long-term memory by showing that noninvasive electrical stimulation of medial frontal cortex normalizes long-term memory related neural signatures and patients’ behavior. Our findings suggest that long-term memory structures may be a source of impaired attentional selection in schizophrenia when visual attention is taxed during the processing of multi-object arrays.